Tumor Management

A brief clinical descriptions and some principles of tumor management will be discussed below.

Benign Tumor

Benign tumor growths, although not true cancers, share some of their same characteristics, such as viral causation, transformation of cells, and autonomous growth. A number of specific viruses are known to cause benign tumors. They are by far the most common of any new growths a person might have.

Warts are benign tumors that occur in almost any location. They are very common on the hands. However, in spite of folklore rumors, they are not caused by handling frogs! A wart virus penetrates the skin and transforms dermal cells causing this unusual growth.

When it occurs on the sole of the foot, around the nail beds, or in the genital organs, it may be difficult to eradicate, even quite painful. Warts can usually be frozen with liquid nitrogen, or may be removed chemically, such as with strong acids. Many physicians prefer to destroy the wart with an electric current (cautery) after appropriately anesthetizing the skin.

Many of these can be successfully frozen or removed at home, if appropriate antiseptic precautions are observed. Skin tags and papillomas are growths that protrude from the skin or mucous membrane. Some of these can be tied off with a strong silk string, while others with a larger base require local excision, freezing technique, or chemical cautery.

Soft lumps of varying sizes under the skin are often lipomas, fatty tumors that usually develop autonomously in the fatty tissue beneath the skin. Sometimes for cosmetic reasons these are removed by a simple surgical procedure done under local anesthesia. Fibrous tumors (fibromas) and various types of moles also can be removed to prevent cosmetic blemish, irritation, or the avoidance of further growth.

Lung Cancer

Cancer of the lung is the most common cancer in men and increasing rapidly among women in the United States. There are a number of types of lung cancer, but the most common is called bronchogenic, since it originates in the bronchial tubes.

By far, the most common cause of lung cancer is tobacco smoking with the risk directly proportionate to the number of cigarettes smoked and the amount of inhaling. It appears that in the tobacco tar, we find not only benz-0-pyrene, but also dozens of other cancerproducing chemicals, as well as other substances that sensitize the tissues to the destructive action of these agents.

Over a period of years the hapless smoker accumulates an increasing amount of tar, until some of the lining cells, which at first increase in number as a protective measure, finally become transformed into malignant cells, which invade local tissues and eventually metastasize. Extensive research on tobacco was sponsored by The American Cancer Society.

Also, momentous publications by the recent Surgeon General of the United States, especially his dynamic governmental Report on Smoking and Health, underscore clearly the detrimental effects of tobacco use and its potential for producing malignancy in vital organs.

In spite of many medical and surgical advances in the treatment of advanced cancer, lung cancer still takes the lives of about 95% of its victims. Tragically, most cases are discovered too late for any hope of cure, although this disease is almost entirely preventable. An individual developing cancer of the lung may have no symptoms at all until the cancer is far advanced.

Others develop a cough that may be confused with the smoker’s cough of chronic bronchitis. At times the expectorated mucous may contain blood, a rather late sign in the development of this cancer. Some unfortunate cases have spread to involve vital blood vessels, the brain, or bones before adequate diagnosis has been made. Occasionally, the removal of the lung or part of a lobe may eradicate the tumor early enough to effect a cure.

Breast Cancer

Cancer of the breast is the leading cancer among women in Western countries. It appears that this cancer is caused by one of several viruses and is increased in certain population groups. As mentioned before women who breast-feed their babies seem to be protected. Those with fibrocystic disease, a condition where the mammary glands enlarge and become engorged with sacs of fluid have an increased risk of breast malignancy.

Recent evidence points to the intake of caffeinated beverages, such as coffee, tea, and colas as factors in the production of this fibrocystic change. Beverage alcohol is believed to be one major risk factor in breast cancer. Men may also have breast cancer, but it is about 1/125th as common.

Periodic selfexamination is an excellent aid to early detection of breast cancer, especially if it remains the same throughout the menstrual cycle. A great deal of controversy is raging in the medical world concerning the best treatment for breast cancer. Some types seem to be adequately treated by locally excising the tumor.

The removal of a portion of the breast obviously preserves normal anatomy and is far less mutilating than the more traditional radical mastectomy. Many types of breast cancer are quite adequately treated and often cured by a modified approach removing the breast only.

While preserving the muscles in the chest and dissecting the lymph glands in the arm pit only when the risk of metastasis is high. This to me seems like a much more “middle-ofthe- road” approach, avoiding the extensive mutilation and more serious complications of the radical surgery commonly performed.

Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract

For the last three decades, cancer of the stomach has been decreasing in frequency in the United States. It remains high in Japan and certain other Oriental nations, and is probably related to the intake of certain foods, some highly seasoned, and others extremely hot. The second most common type of cancer in our country is cancer of the colon and rectum.

This often produces a change in bowel habits, the stools becoming more constipated or of small caliber. Bleeding from the rectum is occasionally seen. This is usually red when the tumor growth is low in the colon and darker, brown to black (called melena) when the lesion is high in the colon or coming from the small intestine or stomach.

This color change is due to the partial digestion of blood products by bacteria and enzymes in the bowel. The rectal examination is helpful in detection of many cancers in their early stages. A ten-inch tube with attached light, called a sigmoidoscope can be used to look into the lower bowel, where nearly three-fourths of the cancers are seen.

This should be done in conjunction with a complete annual exam for individuals over the age of 40. A new technology in fiber optic viewing, called endoscopy, has developed instruments that can examine the stomach and duodenum (gastroscopy), and the entire colon (colonoscopy).

These procedures are often done on an outpatient basis, and provide even more adequate confirmation than the traditional barium x-rays. The cause of these colon cancers is still somewhat uncertain. It is felt that a high fiber diet, which increases the rapidity of transit through the bowel, will decrease the incidence of cancer. This is probably because the waste products contain many toxins.

In contact with the mucous lining of the bowel these can cause irritation and eventual malignant change in the cells. A number of foods, most notably meat, contains toxins (carcinogens) that can be directly associated with cancer. The benz-0-pyrene in a charcoal-broiled steak may be equivalent to that found in about 600 cigarettes.

Methylcholanthrene is also a dangerous substance found in many types of meat. Recently discovered is the chemical malonaldehyde, which seems to be increased when the meat is cooked! Certain vegetables are not exempt from association with cancer. Moldy corn, peanuts, soybeans, and other seeds contain a factor called aflatoxin, which has been associated with liver cancer in several countries.

It is interesting to note that the incidence of cancer is increasing in many fish that inhabit polluted streams and rivers. Problems with meat inspection also contribute to risk of cancer, in that certain portions of an animal carcass may be preserved for food, while another part of the animal may have actual malignancy.

All of these danger signals are turning more food buyers to a vegetarian diet. In fact the numbers are growing rapidly in the United Kingdom, where a disease called bovine spongiform encephalopathy was discovered in 1985. It will undoubtedly spread to other nations. Often called the “mad cow disease,” this condition results from using animal products such as a bone meal in cattle feed.

The cows after a few years go crazy, and become violent. A virus-like particle called a PRION is found in the animal’s brain. Currently it is resistant to most germ killing procedures, including boiling, radiation, and disinfectants. Modern cancer virus research points out the “ounce of prevention” at your supermarket being worth much more than “pounds of cure” in the hospital.

Another bit of good news in the treatment of cancer of the colon is that some types can be removed without radical resection of the organ. Many snares, cauteries, and forceps have been devised to remove these cancers from the rectum through the sigmoidoscope.

Sometimes when the malignancy is present only as a growth on a stalk, the area involved can be followed with periodic examinations. Other times the removal of a portion of the colon is necessary to effect the cure. The possibility of metastasis to the lymph nodes or liver makes it important to achieve early diagnosis and therapy, if life is to be maximally prolonged.

Cancer of the Uterus and Cervix

Routine screening has decreases the incidence of cervical cancer in recent years. Called the “Pap smear”, this screening tool developed by Dr. Papanicoleau has allowed for the early detection of change in the cells of the cervix. Being less common in nuns, in Jewish women, and in those with less sexual activity, this type of cancer merits great interest from a preventive standpoint.

A virus similar to the Herpes virus that causes cold sores has been implicated in the development of some of these cancers. More and more nurses, as well as many midwives are learning how to take these smears, thus increasing the acceptance of the pap smear to many women as well as making the procedure more available.

It certainly should be part of an annual examination from the time of marriage on through life. Early diagnosis with surgical removal of the uterus and cervix can well be curative. Cancer of the lining of the womb (endometrium) is less common, but is still taking many lives. This has definitely been related to the use of estrogens, the female hormone used traditionally to lighten symptoms of the menopause.

Avoidance of these hormone preparations, as well as prompt medical treatment in the event of unusual menstrual flow can provide the early diagnosis needed. An outpatient procedure, using techniques similar to the pap smear (e.g. Vabra aspiration, or the Pipelle) can with less expense and discomfort provide the reassurance needed to evaluate this bleeding.


Cancer involving the blood and bone marrow is most often seen in children. Several types of leukemia are described, based upon the type of blood cells involved and their appearance under the microscope. Samples from the blood and bone marrow are usually compared.

Ionizing radiation, whether from nuclear sources or x-ray therapy, is clearly associated with an increased incidence of these leukemias. Chemical agents, such as the anticancer drugs and occupational exposure to benzal have been associated with increased leukemia.

Some hereditary factors have also been linked with this disease. Most interesting is the firmly established viral theory in relation to acute leukemia. In rodents, fowls, cats, and monkeys certain viruses are known to cause leukemia when experimentally inoculated.

These animals can pass viruses to their offspring through the ovum or shed it in their milk or other secretions, thereby transmitting it to unaffected animals. Again it makes one wonder how much leukemia may actually be transmitted to human beings through the use of animal foods, such as meat, eggs or milk.

Milk is increasingly suspect for cancer viruses, especially the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV, a relative of HIV). A disease in chickens (fowl leukosis) is estimated to affect up to 15% of the birds used for food, and many cases escape the casual inspection at the mass production slaughterhouse. The virus definitely passes into the egg, and can infect a baby chick even before hatching.

It would take very high or prolonged cooking temperatures to be sure the virus was inactivated in eggs used for food. In spite of the fact that the common treatment of leukemia today is with cellular poisons (cytotoxic drugs), it is my hope that a much more physiologic treatment will soon become available, and, in the right setting be demonstrated as superior.

Combining a proper diet with the judicious use of fever therapy should induce the appropriate antibodies to aid in virus destruction and the maintenance of health, as well as a decrease in complications.

This type of therapy has been used with increasing success in the treatment of related tumors, such as Hodgkin’s disease, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and some other lymphomas. These closely related malignancies all seem to have a common viral origin. Thus, they should respond to the intermittent induction of high fever, However, it must be given in a controlled setting for safety.

Skin Cancer

Although more skin cancers are seen than malignancies involving any other organ, this is least commonly a cause of cancer death. Inasmuch as the lesion can be seen with the naked eye in an early stage, the potential for cure is well over 90%. It is thought that the single most important factor in the cause of skin cancer is chronic exposure to ultraviolet light of the sunburn wavelength (UV-B).

Individuals who are intensely pigmented are quite well protected from these rays. Fair-complexioned individuals and albinos should especially use sunscreen preparations. All should avoid unnecessary exposure to x-rays, coal tar products, and arsenic preparations known to be carcinogens.

Seventy-five percent of all skin cancers are of the basal cell carcinoma type. These rarely metastasize, but are locally invasive. The cancer typically begins as a noninflamed, smooth, waxy nodule. Usually a number of small blood vessels are visible near the surface. These nodules often ulcerate and form a crust.

Biopsy and excision will confirm the diagnosis; as well as treat the lesion. Simple excision gives the best cosmetic results. Liquid nitrogen may be used for local freezing, called cryosurgery. In combination with curettage or electrocautery, a cure rate of more than 95% may be expected.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type, developing also from the surface layer of the skin, but having more propensity to metastasize. Most of these lesions are painless. They show up with firm, red plaques, displaying visible scales on the surface.

They may arise from preexisting solar keratoses, premalignant lesions developing from repeated sunburn. Treatment is similar to that of basal cell lesions described above, namely removal. Malignant melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer. They also are related to excessive sunburn and exposure.

Pigmented moles are among the most common growths on the skin of humans. Some of these ultimately may change in their color, size, or hair pattern, which is often an early sign of their malignancy. Irregularities in surface pattern and varying colors are characteristic of the melanoma.

Shades of red, white, or blue (no patriotism here) and other mixtures of brown and black, may indicate the development of this cancer. Melanomas should always be removed with wide excision, since their propensity to spread to other organs, such as the liver, eye, and other areas of the skin is great.

Therapy utilizing the immune mechanism (immunotherapy) has been used widely in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although still experimental these approaches offer an exciting alternative with less cost in toxicity to the individual. BCG vaccine, used for years to prevent tuberculosis, has found its place in the treatment of these melanomas with encouraging results in many cases.

The Prevention of Malignancy

Based upon the evidence currently available, it is my conviction that a rational plan can be designed to prevent most types of cancer. Summed up in one word, moderation, the preventive approach involves several factors: Your diet should be simple, utilizing natural foods as much as possible.

Adequate amounts of fruit, fresh vegetables, and whole grain cereals should be included together with some nuts and natural sources of dietary fats, such as olives, avocados, and a most sparing use of vegetable oil. Any excess of oil, sugar, salt, or any single food, especially refined ones, in the diet should be shunned.

The low-fat vegetarian diet has been associated clearly with an increased resistance to many types of cancer. When individuals abstain from milk and eggs, as well as meat, the cancer risk becomes even lower. Naturally these total vegetarians must have a considerable knowledge of nutrition in order to maintain balanced nutrition, and provide optimum vitamin and mineral intake to maintain excellent health.

Thousands of discriminating consumers, however, are rapidly adopting a vegetarian lifestyle as fast as they are able to learn how to select and prepare the foods. In this change is found the key to preventing not only many cancers, but also atherosclerosis and numerous other diseases.

Reasonable amounts of exercise should be obtained daily for a lifestyle that is low in occupational stress, while satisfying and productive. A moderate exposure to sunlight prevents detrimental premalignant skin changes that many acquire as their skin ages.

The use of a broad-brimmed hat, sunscreen lotions, and avoidance of excessive sun bathing can bring about vibrant health, without wearing out or prematurely aging the dwelling of skin we live in. Temperance advocates for many years have proclaimed the key to prevent one most common cancer.

Those who abstain completely from tobacco smoke, and even avoid settings where the involuntary inhalation of stale secondhand smoke is required, will reduce their risk of lung cancer dramatically. Even ex-smokers who quit before a cancer develops, have a much lower rate than the devotee who continues to use cigarettes.

Although pipes and cigars may produce less lung cancer, they’re stronger forms of tobacco still show malignant potential in cancer of the lip, tongue, throat, and larynx far too often. Chronic use of alcohol increases the risk of cancer in the breast and liver, as well as seriously irritating the stomach and several other organs.

Exposure to drugs of all kinds, including sex hormones, antibiotics, anticancer agents, and coal tar preparations can increase the incidence of malignancies in many organs. True temperance requires us to dispense entirely with all things hurtful, and use in moderation those things healthful.

This principle of moderation can help to prevent many cancers. Routine physical examinations and periodic self-examination of the breasts and skin, with careful observation for the symptoms of cancer described above can detect abnormal lesions in the earliest possible stage, when surgical removal is a possibility.

A regular annual physical should usually include the annual Pap smear, a biennial sigmoidoscopic examination, together with the appropriate laboratory testing for additional aid in early diagnosis. On the other hand, it may just give satisfying reassurance concerning one’s state of health.

Rational treatment of cancer falls into several areas. Whenever possible the malignancy should be removed. Some natural “healers” have spread the erroneous message that surgery spreads cancer. This is only true if the disease is widespread and unresectable with any treatment.

Early surgery in breast cancer can be curative in about three-fourths of patients. The treatment of colon cancer by surgery is well accepted to be not only curative in many, but also helpful in avoiding obstruction of the bowel or profound chronic loss of blood that can complicate these cases.

The diet for any cancer victim should be such that will maintain health and function of all body organs, particularly those systems of elimination. Eating a high fiber, low fat diet as described above is extremely helpful. But extremes should be avoided, such as prolonged fasts, the use of a single fruit juice, or a total reliance on certain vitamin preparations thought to be curative.

Certain types of hydrotherapy include the judicious use of cleansing enemas, fever therapy, or local heating of the tumor may prove therapeutic, particularly in those tumors of viral origin. Cytotoxic drugs should be avoided. Their complications and numerous high-risk symptoms, usually make the side-effects worse than the “cure.”

Radiation therapy, in general, should be reserved only for those cases where metastasis has produced intractable pain, or a “pathologic” fracture is imminent from bone destruction. Although this conservative approach to cancer treatment could well be challenged, it is my conviction that clinical trials of natural therapies will produce resulting longevity and survival statistics equaling the best experimental programs, and with great savings in patient cost and safety.

Our principal fear in such a natural therapeutic approach to cancer is founded upon the failure to follow the simple preventive approaches or seek adequate care early if such disease strikes. Widespread promotion and the practice of these “simple remedies” could in time bring populations, as well as individuals, into a state of health promised by the One who offered “none of these diseases” only on condition of obedience.